Clinical, radiological and biological features of lung metastases in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (case reports)
Nannini M, Biasco G, Di Scioscio V, Di Battista M, Zompatori M, Catena F, Castellucci P, Paterini P, Dei Tos AP, Stella F, Maleddu A, Pantaleo MA.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal tumors that most frequently arise in the gastrointestinal tract. The liver and peritoneum are common sites of distant GIST lesions, whereas lung metastases are infrequent, accounting for 7% of all lesions. The clinical significance of these metastases remains unknown. Although lung metastases are relatively rare in the natural history of GIST, they may become more prevalent due to increased patient life expectancy. The present report describes four patients with GIST who had lung metastases. Two were female (54 and 28 years of age), and two were male (64 and 44 years of age). The primary GISTs were localized in the stomach in two patients and in the small intestine in the other two patients. Three patients presented with multiple lung lesions and one presented with one lung lesion. Lung metastases were present at the time of initial diagnosis in one patients, and were observed during the follow-up period in the other three. In this report we detail the clinical presentation and radiological features of the lung lesions as observed by computed tomography (CT) and computed tomography/ positron emission tomography (CT/PET). We describe each patient's clinical history and treatment which included surgery and the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib and sunitinib, and the novel therapy, nilotinib. Moreover, we discuss some biological aspects of this relatively rare occurrence and the resulting clinical implications. These findings may help clinicians to manage lung metastases arising from GISTs in future.